Algae ABC

Suspended Algae

Mostly named green water or floating algae (sometimes water bloom), and describes sudden, explosive growth of algae or cyanobacteria in water. Through which water turns green and becomes "cloudy". It is mostly caused by over-fertilization of the water and high phosphate. More specifically "algal bloom" is a term to describe the mass development of each individual species of algae, characterized by their ability to gather on or below water surface. By their formation; light is already significantly weakened on the surface and can hardly penetrate to the depth enough for photosynthesis. Oxygen remaining is absorbed by sinking algae and the increasingly growing water population. Moreover algae often produce toxic substances that can be hazardous to water life as well as humans (e.g. microcystins).


Filamentous algae

Also known as thread algae or blanket weed. Filamentous algae are a common problem in many ponds, lakes and other waters. Clearly visible cotton or hairy blankets are formed by the gathering of algae filaments. In swimming ponds Zygnematales or filamentous green algae are mostly observed, filamentous diatoms and cyanobacteria (blue algae) are also rarely seen. Contrary to popular belief, filamentous algae are not always an indication of over-fertilization. Filamentous algae thrive especially in strong sunlight even in extremely nutrient-poor waters. The algae may belong to different groups. To reach a targeted and successful elimination of filamentous algae in ponds, streams and shallow water, we recommend our original product Thread-Algae Killer. The ecological and high-quality granules acts immediately by direct application; simply sprinkle onto thread algae.



Zygnematales (also know as Conjugales) exists in over 2000 form. It is a common family of predominantly freshwater green algae. Zygnematales include Mesotaenium, Desmidiales and (e.g. Spirogyra). The algae form filaments of cell rows which decompose easily in single cells. The cells have a diameter of 4 to 20 micrometers and are up to 500 microns long. The cells are rod-shaped and have a circular cross section. The cells have no central constriction. The nucleus sits in the middle. They have one, two or more chloroplasts, which are plate-shaped and stand axially. The chloroplasts have some longitudinal rails and carry many conspicuous pyrenoids. Cell walls are porous; they are often prickly and partially composed of cylinder rings. The asexual reproduction is by division, thread breaking or through cells transformation of into thick-walled aplanospores. Sexual reproduction is by the conjugation; typical for Zygnematophyceae algae. The zygote is spherical and remains in conjugation canal.


Ball algae

Ball algae known as Marimo or moos algae are a common form of algae and are mainly in lakes and ponds floating or on shore mud. Ball algae are freshwater algae, a species of cyanobacteria resp. Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), which form eye-catching colonies of gelatinous balls. They look in their appearance and external consistency like a fruit; such as a grape or a small plum. Nostoc species are composed of long, unbranched, flexible filaments or cell cords. Ball algae tend to grow in ponds with high nitrate and phosphate concentration. By removing these algae, one should pay attention not let them explode; otherwise, many of the spores will get into the water again; promoting the re-formation of new colonies. To reach best results, use rounded objects or appropriated fish.


Blue-green algae

Strictly speaking, they are not algae, but so-called cyanobacteria. Because of many different types of blue-green algae; we can barely describe causes and countermeasures in an exact way. Blue-green algae occur both in soft and in hard water. They grow well on sandy soils as well as on gravel. Conditions leading to a disproportionate growth of cyanobacteria are numerous and not always easy to explain. High phosphate and nutrient concentration in water, e.g. untreated waste water with detergent residues in combination with high water temperatures promotes bacteria propagation. Therefore, phosphate in water should be kept in low levels. In fact, blue-green algae due to the absence of a cell nucleus belong to bacteria group, namely cyanobacteria, rather than to algae. Typical is their spreading form: Like a slimy carpet they lie down on the gravel and water plants, they may even float on the surface. They are recognized by their green to dark bluish-green, sometimes almost black. What’s common to their different species is; that they produce toxins destroying other life forms if no measures are taken against them.

Quellen: -